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  BACKTRACKING THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOURCES OF CRITICAL PEDAGOGY

 

Plato

429-347 BC

 

Inventor of philosophic argument

 

Otherworldly, formal and a priori concept of knowledge

 

"Patron saint of transcendental theories of knowledge and especially ethics"

Aristotle

435-350 BC

Student of Plato

Concern for intense detail of natural phenomena, including those of thought, language and psychology

Concern to protect knowledge of the plural and multifarious world we live in

Like Kant, lover of categories - laid down division of the sciences we use

Laid down categories that have organized virtually all subsequent philosophical thought (substance/accident, potential/actual, matter/form, and categories of causes)

 

 

Rene Descartes

1596-1650

French mathematician and founding father of modern philosophy

"I think therefore I am"

Cartesian dualism - separation of mind and matter

(criticized by Kant)

 

Immanuel Kant

1724-1804

German philosopher and founder of Critical Philosophy; made first decisive break with empiricism  (empiricism ties knowledge to experience; no a priori knowledge)

A priori

Categories of the mind

Idealism - reality is fundamentally mental inn nature

Considered the greatest philosopher of last 300 years

 

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

1776-1831

German philosopher

Self-consciousness

Foundation for social philosophy (alienation, master/slave morality)

Logic (dialectic materialism)

Freedom

History

Contradiction

History is progress toward freedom

Primary influence on Engels and Marx

 

Friedrich Engels

1820-1895

 

German social philosopher

Collaborator of Marx

Born to prosperous, factory-owning parents

Collaborated with Marx on The Communist Manifesto (1848)

Credited with shaping two major philosophical components of Marxism:

Historical materialism and

Dialectical materialism

Main supporter of Marx and his family

Editor of Marx’s works

Wrote Anti-Duhring (1878), a materialist rebuttal of the work of Eugene Duhring, one of Marx’s rivals for influence in German socialist circles

Karl Marx

1818-1883

 

Founder of revolutionary communism

Introduced concept of alienation

The Communist Manifesto (1848)

Capital (three volumes in 1867, 1885, 1893)

Base and superstructure

Dialectical materialism

Historical materialism

Labour theory of value

Marxism - a commitment to the exploited and oppressed classes, and to the revolution that should better their position

 

Edmund Husserl

1859-1938

 

German mathematician

Principal founder of Phenomenology

Attempted to reconcile the subjective or psychological nature of mental life with the objective and logical content

Moved to form of transcendental idealism

Bracketing

Martin Heidegger

1889-1976

 

German existentialist

Social critic

Educated in phenomenological tradition of Husserl

Sein und Zeit (1927) translated to Being and Time (1962)

Freedom

Existence in the world

Inauthenticity

Dread, guilt, destiny

Sigmund Freud

1856-1939

 

Viennese founder of psychoanalysis

Postulated that an active process of repression needed confronting and disarming

Model for the dynamics of the mind (ego)

Methods/theories adopted as official of the Frankfurt School

 

The First Critical Theorists -  the Frankfurt School

 

Max Horkheimer

1885-1973

Director, Frankfurt School, 1930-late 60s

Dialectic of Enlightenment

Theodor W. Adorno

1903-1969

German sociologist and political thinker

The Authoritarian Personality (1950)

Philosopher and musicologist

Dialectic of Enlightenment

Herbert Marcuse

1898-1979

One-Dimensional Man (1964)

Eros and Civilization (1955)

"Father of the New Left"

Leo Lowenthal

 

Pioneer in development of a sociology of literature

Critic of mass culture

 

Eric Fromm

1900-

 

Psychoanalyst

Escape from Freedom (1941)

The Sane Society (1955)

 

Henryk Grossman

1934-

 

Economist

 

Freidrich Pollock

1894-1970

 

Economist

 

Antonio Gramsci

1891-1937

 

Italian communist

Social theorist

Prison Notebooks

Humanist Marxism

Hegemony

(Gramsci was not a member of the Frankfurt School, although he lived at the same time.  He did have a major impact upn Critical Pedagogy.)

 

Paulo Freire

1921-1997

 

Brazilian educator

Phenomenologist

Literacy training

‘Conscientization’ - consciousness-raising

Education - "banking concept"

Jurgen Habermas

1929-

 

Most eclectic modern Marxist - Marxism, speech act theory, hermeneutics, Piagetian-Kohlbergian developmentalism, Chomskyan linguistics, psychoanalysis

3 interests rooted in human nature:

1. technical

2. practical

3. emancipatory

Raymond Williams

1921-

 

Foremost Marxist literary historian of his generation

Open communication> genuine community

Adult education

Educational system perpetuates class system

Hegemony

 

Critical Pedagogues -  following in the steps of the Critical Theorists

 

Henry Giroux

 

Educational critical theorist

Living Dangerously - Multiculturalism and the Politics of Difference, 1993

Ideology, Culture and the Process of Schooling, 1981

Critical Pedagogy, the State and Cultural Struggle, 19889

Theory and Resistance in Education, 1983

Education Under Siege, 1985

Postmodern Education, 1991

Border Crossings, 1992

The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education, 1983

Education Still Under Siege, 1995

Michael Apple

 

Educational critical theorist

Ideology and Curriculum, 1979

Education and Power, 1982

Cultural and economic reproduction in education: essays on class, ideology and the state, 1982

Official Knowledge: democratic education in a conservative age, 1993

The Curriculum: problems, politics and possibilities, 1988

Ideology and practice in schooling

Teachers and Tests: a political economy of class and gender relations in education, 1986

Schooling and the rights of children, 1975

 

Peter McLaren

 

Douglas Kellner

 

 

Carlos Torres

Kris Guiterrez

 

 

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